This article approaches the upcoming first quarter square between transiting Uranus and Pluto from the perspective of potential financial and economic changes. In order to do so, we must first examine the difference between a first quarter square and a last quarter square. Then we must review the basic natures and reactive states of both Uranus and Pluto as they engage in an historic confrontation rare in history. These two titans have been approaching each other for quite some time, and are currently in the final crescent phase of their relationship. They will not reach their official exact square until June 24, 2012, which continues through March 16, 2015.
The key thing to remember is that, in our lifetimes, we haven’t experienced a Uranus-Pluto first quarter square. The last time they were in first quarter square to each other was between 1876 and 1877, just after a nasty Saturn-Uranus opposition that began in 1873. The following excerpt from a 1932 article by James Mars Langham vividly depicts the economic climate of those times:
Herschel [Uranus] completed its first very evil major aspect opposition 180° to Saturn in April of 1873 and remained in opposition (progressing and then coming back by retrograde movement) until November of 1876. [This is very similar to what just happened between 2008 and 2009 when Saturn in Virgo opposed Uranus in Pisces.]. This of course was a very evil indication and to quote from the same book [Langham] read: ‘In 1873 occurred a panic which affected every operation of finance and commerce. It was more than a panic. It was the beginning of a long period of financial and industrial depression, in many ways the logical outcome of ill adjusted production and credit. [Sound familiar?] A total of over 25,000 miles of new railway construction had been made in four years from 1868 to 1872 [interesting that the idea of the Super Train is all over the news right now and is an evolving industry at this writing], which in turn created a demand for iron which led to over-investment in this industry and prices of all commodities, were unduly inflated. The political consequences of the panic were seen in the fall of 1874, when the congressional elections for the first time since 1860 went against the Republican Party. [When President Obama won the election of 2008 in the midst of the crisis, the Democratic Party took away the eight year run of the Republicans.] In 1876 dissatisfaction with the financial policy of the government was so bitter that it crystallized in a separate political organization known as the ‘Greenback Party,’ which in 1878 polled a million votes. [Does the 'Tea Party' ring any bells?] 
This article excerpt, despite its archaic language, eerily describes conditions in the mid-to-late 1800s that resonate with financial and political conditions today. Many say that we can tell about the future by examining the past. So when we are asked to forecast what can potentially happen with this upcoming square, we can look at the past, but we can only assess the possibilities because we haven’t had the experience in our contemporary lives. Just as we never had the ‘experience’ of foreign invasion on American soil when the airplanes crashed into the Twin Towers on 9-11, the present state of our world is at the great precipice of an unknown, financially-based planet. In the U.S. during the turbulent decade of the 60s, shocking new realities burst onto the horizon during the Uranus-Pluto conjunction in Virgo. It was a time of violence and anarchy throughout the country, with student uprisings (even student murders at Kent State University), as well as the deaths of President Kennedy, his brother Robert, and Martin Luther King. The times were a-changing, and explosions of consciousness (good words for Uranus-Pluto) led to social movements that changed life on many levels, both personal and economic. The U.S. went off the gold standard in 1971 and a floating currency became the norm, leading to the overprinting of money, which continues today in certain countries. The end result was the devaluation and demise of many currency values throughout the world, eroding over time. The concept of credit became more common than rare as financial institutions and government treasuries began credit exchange programs for goods and services.
From the perspective of the U.S., it is important to understand that we are still a very young nation of 50 states (which are like 50 countries), with a population of 312,000,000 people run by only 545 individuals (100 Senators, 435 members of Congress, 9 Supreme Court Justices and 1 President). That comes out to 57,248 persons per elected official! Barely 236 years old, we are yet to experience our first Pluto return. But as we inch ever closer to that momentous period, through its current balsamic phase, huge shifts in our thinking and value systems are inevitable, although still imperceptible. The U.S. is much like a teenager with hormones raging: teenagers want what they want when they want it as they ally themselves against the ‘old folks who don’t know anything’. And like teens coming of age who gain new freedom and responsibility with the obtaining of their driver’s license, their choices and actions have consequences if they should break the rules.
This youth mindset is often the consciousness-raising path of young governments with new leaders, as well as young economies and emerging markets, new wealth bases and new technologies. Some things work in this process as others don’t. We are at the threshold of an experimental phase in history. We have the creativity of youth not yet jaded like much older countries. Innovation is one of America’s key attributes, and this is a very Uranian gift. Just twenty years ago, cell phones were the size of a bag of flour, and now they are a palm-sized computer port of telecommunication – the modern version of the magic wand created by young wizards of time and technology. Many of these young wizards emerged from the U.S.
However, there are wizards and there are wizards. What about those financial wizards who created such things as derivatives, mortgage-backed securities, and many (not all) investment banks which, wanting to profit, created instant money and paper for those material things that so many people clamored for–and received by merely signing a dotted line. The financial institutions knew they had customers willing to do anything to get what they wanted right away. No one looked at the ‘shadow’ side of these contractual agreements until it was too late. Unless one faces the shadow, things fall apart. Innovation, too, has its dark side like everything else.
The ever-present shadow is one of the faces of Pluto. If we (the collective we) face our financial lives with responsibility and forethought, then Pluto does not resort to extreme responses. As human beings, we are all too often masters of denial when frozen in fear, and thus more likely to push the shadow down deeper and deeper until there’s no more room for it, at which point it explodes in frightening scenarios like financial meltdowns, great depressions, and civil wars. This is what a head-to-head first quarter square pushing against Pluto is really about – the eruption of the shadow. The remedy requires asking the questions that no one dares to ask, and a stalwart confrontation of hard truths followed by constructive actions, regardless of the resultant pain and hardship.
To get the result, we have to ask the same questions that a well-trained journalist asks devoid of editorial comment: “Why, what, where, who and when?” We need to ask why is there such a huge world debt? Is it because of the banks and investment houses alone? What about all the individuals who took those loans? The same is true with regard to the present crisis in Europe. When the European Union formed and countries clamored for entry, why did those that didn’t qualify get in? Countries like Greece are now immersed in a mini-revolution as the European Bank continues to bail them out in hopes of saving them and themselves. Greece–along with Italy, Spain and Portugal–should never have been allowed into the EU in the first place as they didn’t produce the correct GDP, balance their country’s budgets or resolve their debts. But the vision for something bigger than themselves (Neptune-tainted) was so great that exceptions prevailed. And now as the square between Uranus and Pluto tightens, it is very possible that by the time 2015 arrives, the EU will disband and begin a major reorganization that is larger than the aforementioned Union! It is very possible that certain countries not qualified to remain in the EU will return to their own native currencies. Perhaps that is the beginning of ‘shadow-facing’ and self-responsibility. This, of course, suggests an explosive financial crisis until the reorganization process is completed, probably not until late 2015 at the closure of the Uranus-Pluto square.
Coming home to the U.S. and the infamous bailouts of 2008-2009, the idea was right. Based on Keynesian economics, it worked in the past, but devoid of regulation and restriction when handing out large sums of money, it is catastrophic! We assume people and institutions are honorable and follow the rules of money, but we all know what assumption means. In any transaction, one must have collateral, plain and simple. You have to have rules and regulations (Saturn) when you contract with others (Libra). The borrower must know consequences are an absolute given if the agreement is to work. Pluto demands this awareness or he gets angry. After all, Pluto and Saturn were brothers who had to work together to make the ‘world’ work. Pluto, like the ferryman Charon, must be paid in order to be transported across the murky waters of the River Styx. If you don’t pay, you don’t go, remaining in the underworld forever.
Non-regulation of these bailouts clearly illustrates a no-rules policy gone terribly wrong. At the time of the emergency bailouts, certain individuals involved with the bailouts said, “Hold on…we have to think about what they have to do to pay us back.” But the parties expressing this were silenced, the crisis was immediate with threats of international panic, and money was doled out without any rules. Government got bigger and gained more control over several private industries. It even insisted that certain banks refusing the bailouts be forced to take them anyway! Certain lending institutions took the bailouts without any intention of pipelining the proceeds to their customers to ensure growth and increase employment numbers.
Subsequently, the escalating job losses and company bankruptcies fueled the climbing foreclosure rates, resulting in millions of homeless people: eight out of ten homes empty in many of the most affected states. The panic of the Saturn-Uranus opposition, intensified by the crescent phase between Uranus and Pluto at that same time, provided the basis of an economic meltdown beautifully described in Andrew Ross Sorkin’s book, Too Big to Fail, wherein he states: “The individuals who propelled this narrative genuinely believed they were – and may in fact have been – staring into the economic abyss.”  Galileo Galilei said, “All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them.”
Synodic Phases of Uranus-Pluto
The prelude to any first quarter square is the 45° to 90° angle called the crescent phase. (The phases are named after the same phases of the Moon.) Crescent phases are notorious for creating obstacles without any solutions. They are the phase in which red tape is the order of the day and nothing seems to get done. Much like the new moon phase, the crescent phase is at the beginning of a 360° cycle. Similar to the 45° angle known as the semi-square, it is an aspect that creeps up on you and suddenly strikes when least expected. It triggers stress because it is a cycle reacting to change without any concrete experience offering solutions. It marks the beginning phase of self-actualization–but self-actualization it ain’t! Causing nothing but trouble, creating adversity, ignoring any action that includes compromise, it just gripes about all the problems emerging as the result of the new phase (which for our current Uranus-Pluto square would refer back to the original Uranus-Pluto conjunction of the 1960s when civil rights, equal rights and rampant inflation were the themes of the decade). The crescent phase sets the tone for the first quarter square, which is the beginning of the ability to see both sides and begin working out solutions.
At the first quarter square, both planets face off with each other. The 90° angle, whose number adds up to the number 9, suggests that both planets must move to a higher level of communication and consciousness or else the completely new order fails. The seeds planted at the conjunction (similar to Aries energy) are now at the Cancer-themed phase, which is about caring for and cultivating the crop sown from the seedlings of the conjunction. At this phase we pull the weeds, eradicate the dead wood, and fertilize the crop, because what we cultivate is what we reap in the following phases. We must tend our garden in order to survive when winter arrives. This is the power of a first quarter square position versus a last quarter square (270º), an angle of release, which last occurred in the late 1920s and early 1930s.
A last quarter square is very different. It is an ‘economic winter’ phase, close to the end of a cycle, three-quarters of the way around. For all intents and purposes, it has laid down its track and cannot go back. It aligns itself to the position of Capricorn in the zodiac while the conjunction aligns itself with the energy of Aries. In the northern hemisphere, the time of Capricorn is winter. What appears to be dead is really hanging on, frozen in a latent state of possibility. Likewise, last quarter squares appear to be without light but are the incubation phase of the future cycle. Survival measures and solutions are enacted to shore up the previous cycle’s unresolved problems while, at the same time, something inside is planted and incubating. Last quarter phases are cycles without light while first quarter phases have lots of light. While one moves forward, the other holds on for survival.
Following is a table with a series of dates that includes a sequence of last quarter, conjunction and first quarter phases of the Uranus-Pluto cycle. Note that the first three dates in the table reflect fire sign conjunctions of Uranus and Pluto, while the most recent conjunction falls in the earth sign Virgo. The change of element is actually more compatible with the current transit of Pluto in Capricorn and bodes well for more positive change than in previous eras.
|Last Quarter Phase||Conjunction||First Quarter Phase|
|1566 to 1567||1597 to 1598: 20° Aries||1623 to 1624|
|1678 to 1680||1710: 28° Leo||1755 to 1758|
|1820 to 1821||1850 to 1851: 19° Aries||1876 to 1877|
|1932 to 1934||1965 to 1966: 17° Virgo||2012 to 2015|
The basic difference between a last quarter square and a first quarter square is this: In a last quarter square things spin out of control, old systems are no longer viable, and quick and immediate measures are taken to shore things up in order to avoid collapse–i.e., tightened regulation to survive (Saturn and Capricorn energy). It’s about damage control for survival. In a first quarter square, the innovations seeded during the prior conjunction now move forward with gusto and growth, gaining a foothold while old ways of doing things become obsolete. Populations increase and mass migrations begin, thus changing the face of culture and economies. World currencies and values change, and in the first quarter phase we often see inflation, sometimes hyper-inflation, as well as higher taxes (regardless of what the politicians promise).
Uranus-Pluto Changes in Economics in U.S. History
Let’s look at some examples. The Navigation Acts that began around 1660 approaching the last quarter phase between Uranus and Pluto were set into place to control trade, or at least the cost of trade. Their main objective was to protect English shipping and secure profits after the mass exodus of the colonists to the Americas. Things were spinning out of control and these laws were designed to rein in the colonies. They were the response to Mercantilism, which was originally designed to create a balance of trade as the new colonies were forming. The lack of regulation was built into this at the outset as the colonists were far away and could break the law with no one there to oversee what was really going on. The Navigation Acts were an extreme action that ultimately reaped the extreme response of revolution a century later.
For the colonists, this last quarter Uranus-Pluto phase was an experimental time as they tried on various currencies that might work. One such currency was wampum–white beads in six-foot strands made from clam shells–a currency accepted by the Indian communities that the colonists adopted. (In fact, wampum was used as part of a loan deal of over 5,000 guilders that Stuyvesant used to pay workers for constructing the New York Citadel!) As the colonists grew stronger over time, it became evident that they would need to create their own currencies. But how to establish a generally acceptable monetary system was a daunting challenge. According to economist Glyn Davies in his book A History of Money: “The chronic shortage of coin caused them to jump from one expedient to another. Thus in 1715 [after the Uranus-Pluto conjunction of 1710], the authorities in North Carolina declared that as many as seventeen commodities including maize and wheat become legal tender.”
One can say that the ‘underground economy’ happening within the colonies was causing much consternation back home in Great Britain. As the first quarter square approached in 1755, taxation became pervasive as the English increased their tax revenues, a currency shortage developed, sterling became too difficult to maintain, and the colonists resorted to printing paper money. This was an exclusively American idea!
Growth in the U.S. increased exponentially during the years leading up to the last quarter phase of Uranus-Pluto in 1820-21. Bills of exchange were being printed and there arose a desperate need for a uniform national currency as a result of all the growth. The establishment of the Second National Bank of the USA occurred just prior to this period, in January 1817, to provide some measure of central regulation. (Indeed, providing some sort of regulation seems to be a recurring theme in last quarter phases.) This, however, was soon to change when gold was discovered in California in 1848, just prior to the exact Uranus-Pluto conjunction of 1850. (Interestingly, Neptune was discovered in Pisces during that same time, and we are currently in the midst of Neptune’s return to its home sign.)
Gold became the new base of currency at the conjunction and had rapid inflation. Between 1850 and 1860 the mint issued $400 million in gold coins, setting the stage for a new gold standard. In 1860 the American Congress financed its first real war with out-of-control hyper-inflation (a symptom of movements towards the first quarter). The railroads grew and grew, and it is often said that Lincoln won the Civil War because of his use of the railroads. From 1870 to 1880, during the first quarter phase, the newly united nation had greater economic needs. Taxes were levied by the Union during the Civil War and money was increasingly being printed in notes. Farm prices fell and there ensued a Great Depression at the first quarter square. Then came the so-called Reconstruction period when mass migrations, currency changes and value changes became epidemic. During the war, the railroads had been built up so much that it helped fuel the collapse. However, the railroads were instrumental in the movement of mass migrations heading West. In addition, mass world migrations occurred as climates changed, affecting food supply–such as in Ireland during the Potato Famine with the country losing 45% of its labor force between the late1840s-1870.
The cycle continued with more and more money being printed, no regulations established, and wild speculation contributing to the 1901 stock market panic of railroad speculators. The remarkable planetary pile-up occurring at the turn of the century included not only an exact Uranus-Pluto opposition (in Gemini/Sagittarius), but also oppositions between Saturn-Neptune and Jupiter-Neptune. It was a collision course of events (perfect metaphor for a railroad panic!) illustrating the consequences of non-regulation beginning at the 1850 conjunction and culminating during the Great Depression of 1932-34. In the wake of the 1901 panic, new laws were enacted but they eventually proved inadequate at the crux of the Great Depression, when even more stringent laws and reforms were set into place at the critical last-quarter survival juncture. This was particularly true around the time of the 1933 bank holidays when banks closed because they ran out of money! This contributed to the longer-term regulatory reform of the Glass Steagall Act of 1933, which was designed to shore up crisis and facilitate increases in the money supply. Since the U.S. was on a gold standard at this time (established during the previous conjunction), Glass Steagall allowed government bonds to supplement gold (to some extent) as backing for note issues. Security measures were established and limits placed on people borrowing money for wild speculation. The FDIC was also formed in 1934, designed to guarantee and insure certain percentages of bank deposits, thus assuring people that their finances would be safe. It seemed the right thing to do in light of the wildly speculative cycle that began with the discovery of gold which was now the basis of a new standard.
The gold standard continued up until July 25, 1944, when there was a meeting at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire that culminated in the signing of the Bretton Woods Agreement on December 17, 1945. This formed the ‘new’ International Monetary Fund (IMF) which based values on gold standards throughout the world, with the U.S. in the driver’s seat. This helped grow the world economy and peaked around October 24, 1962, immediately preceding (balsamic phase) the upcoming Uranus-Pluto conjunction (which peaked at 16-17º Virgo in 1965-66). The formation of the Group of 10 in 1962 began when the governments of eight IMF member countries banned together: Belgium, Canada, France, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the U.S., as well as the central banks of Germany and Sweden. The IMF developed a fixed exchange rate and reserve, initially defined as the measurement of 0.888671 grams fine gold = 1 U.S. dollar. But it was not to last. Since Bretton Woods left large money holdings in the hands of large foreign banks, Richard Nixon reneged on the convertibility promise of dollars into gold, thus devaluing the U.S. dollar. As he did this, Neptune was stationing to go direct at 00º of Sagittarius and in a last quarter phase to the 00º Pisces degree at which gold was discovered in the late 1840s. (It is interesting that gold seems to be sensitive to 00° Mutable.)
Since that time, the Berlin Wall came down and the Cold War ended. The financial engineers entrenched in the Cold War now had nothing to do and filled the void by designing a thing called derivatives in the 1970s. This worked beautifully with the new floating exchange rate resulting from the breakdown of the Bretton Woods Agreement in 1971. In addition, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was established in 1993, and then followed by the Euro in 1999 (with legal tender in 2002). Many currency collapses occurred throughout the world during this Uranus-Pluto crescent phase, such as the Asian crisis in 1997, the Russian crisis in 1998, and the Brazilian crisis in 1999.
In July 2005, China separated the value of their Yuan from the U.S. dollar. Currently, debt is rampant–not only between the U.S. and China but throughout the world–and at this writing the debate continues regarding the survival of the Euro. Again, my thoughts are that by 2015 it will no longer exist in its current form, probably breaking up close to the end of the Uranus-Pluto first quarter square. New currencies will then emerge along with digital currencies adapting to a newer world structure of inventions and international business.
The pattern of the last quarter (breakdown and regulation for survival) and first quarter (build-up) cycles is as follows: Cycles break down because of non-regulation in the prior cycle and new regulations are put into place to keep the system in survival mode until the new direction shows itself in the conjunction period. Once this occurs, rapid change ensues, many difficulties arise because of so many changes (crescent phase), populations grow and mass migrations begin. Prices go down, values decrease, old currencies aren’t working, taxes go up, hyper-inflation enters the picture, and then a new order forms out of the prior cycle. Population amalgamations lead to new insights for creating new inventions that are the basis of a new economic framework. This is the cycle of the next three years.
Now let’s look to the future to explore what positive changes may emerge from our current crisis. One key factor is that we have the capacity to work anywhere and anytime through the wizardry of modern technologies like GPS, community access internet, and virtual communications that travel so fast that revolutions in all parts of the world can begin and end with the push of a button. This technology offers efficiency in such large operations as farming and manufacturing.
When Alan Mullaly took over Ford in the mid-2000s, he led the effort to take a $23.6 billion loan against all of Ford’s assets. There was a lot of debate about this loan, but that loan enabled the company to re-tool and create more efficient machines, to purchase and renovate such companies as Jaguar and build the company back up. When the government bailouts came, Ford refused to take the money, faced its shadow and revised its vehicle design utilizing green technologies. The result was an efficient and cost effective vehicle. The company now creates a reasonable and stable investment opportunity.
When large power-producing companies such as General Electric went through their own crisis and transformation, they too were forced to confront their shadow. This reality check fueled a push to change their approach to service and technology. Solar energy has become one of the hottest technologies as new ways of capturing the Sun’s power through photovoltaic technology makes solar power far more efficient. The upshot is that GE is building one of the nation’s largest solar power plants, and recently announced that within three to five years, they will be able to offer their customers very affordable solar panels for generating electricity. 
Google recently announced its investment of $280 million to spur home solar systems starting as early as last summer. And even more recently, on December 21, 2011, Google, Inc. and KKR & Co. L.P. announced they are investing a combined $189 million in U.S. solar facilities. Google said it would invest $94 million in four California solar farms under construction near Sacramento, California, while KKR said it plans to invest $95 million in U.S. solar facilities. This includes the Sacramento facilities and other projects it has not yet announced. The investments are the latest in a string of large solar-powered deals involving major U.S. energy companies, including Warren Buffett’s Mid-American Energy Holdings Co. and NRG Energy, Inc. (NRG).” This is exciting news as these two companies break away from the past and move into the future. 
Now, to look at other less familiar Uranian technologies coming into the Pluto marketplace, let’s travel to the farming center of the U.S. where corn and soybeans are the major food crops. Solar panels and windmills are fast-becoming the power landscape of Midwestern farms. Solar panels (very Plutonian) and wind power (Uranian) work well together as they afford an excellent solution to those more remote large parcels of land that cannot connect to the normal power grids, but are suppliers of grains. In addition, the recent advancement in technology with regard to smart phones has enhanced the ability to efficiently manage such things as water irrigation in isolated farming communities. (With the upcoming Neptune and Chiron transit through Pisces during the next ten to fourteen years, this will be of great importance.)
Out-of-the-box changes are taking place in materials used for the most basic of needs. For example, one of the most basic building materials is concrete. It is durable and cheap. In 2010 the world produced 3.6 billion tons of cement, which is a mixture of water, sand and other materials. The future estimates for concrete (a saturnine material) needs in 2050 are estimated to be about a billion tons. The problem with concrete, though very affordable and durable, is that it is responsible for 5 percent of the world’s human-produced carbon dioxide emissions. However, there are engineers and scientists now exploring a new type of concrete – a ‘green’ concrete. One of the leaders in this field is Nikolaos Vlasopoulos, an environmental engineer at Imperial College in London, England. Along with his fellow professors at Imperial College, he is exploring and examining a new type of cement made by an Australian company. 
And finally, we continue to witness innovation in building homes more efficiently and affordably. There is no doubt of two things: more and more people are going to be in need of housing, and housing affordability is key for growing populations. In addition, all of those people who lost their homes still need housing. But the old model of home building technology is changing rapidly with Pluto in Capricorn and Uranus pushing it. One very unique business opened a branch in Mare Island, California. For many years Mare Island was the central shipbuilding city of northern California, but with the economic downturn, the area surrounding this location came close to bankruptcy. Their empty buildings remain – particularly the buildings designed specifically for shipbuilding. A company called Blu Homes designed a new template for manufactured homes. Their designs are comparable to some of the finest built homes using old building formats. However, they are very different in that they build in a climate-controlled facility and engineer the designs for maximum efficiency, keeping construction costs low. Their unique design enables homes to fold up (complete with folding windows, fireplaces, kitchens and cabinets!), lowering transportation and installation costs. Similar to the concept of pop-up stores (found in retail fashion), these homes are durable, solid and beautiful. The buildings are environmentally friendly, and the merging of their construction requirements with the old shipyard facilities is a perfect example of compromise and practicality.
We face many challenges as we approach the Uranus-Pluto square in 2012–including escalating earthquakes, hurricanes and tornadoes in the most unlikely locations. The earthquakes in consciousness will continue as well. Stock markets will soar and plunge, the most unlikely of countries will prosper while the old stand-bys will not. All the elements of water, air, earth and fire will shift and be converted from one chemical formula to another. It is exciting and terrifying all at the same time. The key thing to remember is that within the dissension, new seeds of change and possibility are forming–though it may take another decade for us to really see the result of this time. Timing is everything in the evolutionary process. The maturity of an organism collides with fate and ability. The generation born during the last Uranus-Pluto conjunction–a conjunction of anarchy throughout history–in the earth sign Virgo, has the natal imprint of the “environmental anarchist”. Now coming of age, they are embedding their essence into the fabric of the world.)
 Langham, James Mars. Business Cycles versus Planetary Movements, 1860 to 1935. The Maghnal Publishing Co., Wolfer Printing Co., Los Angeles, CA 1935
 Sorkin, Andrew Ross. Too Big to Fail: The Inside Story of How Wall Street and Washington Fought to Save the Financial System–and Themselves. Penguin Books, New York, N.Y. 2009.
 Due to space constraints, the opposition and other aspects are not explored in this article, but are covered in my forthcoming book.
 Davies, Glyn. A History of Money: From Ancient Times To The Present Day. University of Wales Press, Cardiff. 2002.
 Ibid. pg. 462. A quote by Galbraith states that the Central Bank was exclusively British at that time, the commercial banks were exclusively Italian, and paper money became an American invention.
 According to Brian Wingfield of Bloomberg News: “Solar power may be cheaper than electricity generated by fossil fuels and nuclear reactors within three to five years because of innovations,” said Mark M. Little, research director for General Electric Company…If we can get solar at 15 cents a kilowatt-hour lower, which I’m hopeful that we will do, you’re going to have a lot of people that are going to want to have solar at home…The 2009 average U.S. retail rate per kilowatt-hour for electricity ranges from 6.1 cents in Wyoming to 18.1 cents in Connecticut, according to Energy Information Administration data released in April (2011).” Brian Wingfield. GE Sees Solar Cheaper than Fossil Power in Five Years. Thursday, May 26, 2011. 12:44 PM MDT. Bloomberg.com
 The following chart data for companies cited are from Munkasey Database: Ford: July 9, 1919, noon, Wilmington, DE. General Electric: April 15, 1892, noon, New York, NY and May 27, 1926, 10 am, New York, NY. Google First Trade: Aug. 19, 2004 11:55 am, New York, NY; and Google, Inc.: Oct. 22, 2002, 9am, Wilmington, DE.
 Manito, Illinois is a case in point. One owner of one of these newly-enhanced farms has no less than 23 irrigation systems that he must manage. He no longer has to drive the 250 miles to check on his pivots three times a day. With a few simple taps on his smart phone, he is able to check the status of all his systems with either his phone or his laptop. If there is trouble, a text(!) signals him a message regarding the problem. The new technologies are from Zimmatic FieldPLUS and FieldNET, a new technology that controls irrigation systems and allows each pivot to transmit status and operations using cellular signals and global positioning systems.
 Michael Rosenwald. Green Cement. Smithsonian Magazine. December 2011. Pg. 52.
The challenge was to take the limestone out of the cement and replace it with a less toxic chemical to the environment, which was magnesium oxide, but when that didn’t work, they came up with alternatives such as magnesium silicates: carbon-free compounds derived from talc, serpentine, olivine or other minerals. There is a huge world supply of these materials, and this new material is in the process of being refined for the marketplace to replace the more toxic concrete in the next three to five years. With Pluto in Capricorn we see the natural transmutation of the materials like cement, stone, and concrete into the same type of materials but with different bases. These scientists are the modern day alchemists, transmuting all types of materials like this one known as Novacem. It and many others now in development move the construction industry into a more viable playing field that meets needs and honors the environment (one of those compromises mentioned earlier in this piece).